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## Exponents - Giga Tera Pico Nano

In the Metric System you will encounter prefixes for numbers. In electronics, right from resistors to hard disks these units are used. So you have to have in your memory, at least the ones below, so that you place the correct value of cap or inductor in your circuit.

Electronic Component Values like Ohm, Farad and Metrics like Volts, Amps have prefixes like Giga Ohm, Milli Amp, Pico Farad. Which indicates the Order of Magnitude.

See SI Units or Metric Units to read more about these. R, C and L values are given these prefixes. We have resistors like 10 Tera Ohms of Glass Surface Resistance to 1 Micro Ohms of a Small Copper Wire Resistance. 1 Pico Farad of Capacitance of two Large PCB Tracks in a Multi Layer PCB to 10 Milli Farad of a Huge Electrolytic Power Supply Filter. Then Lastly 10 Nano Henrys Inductance of the Twisted Connector Cables in a Computer and 1 Henry of a Powerful Choke that can kickback 10 Kilo Volts when a 10 Amps current thru it is broken. Electronics is Fun, is it not.

Exponents

 Tera 1000,000,000,000 1.e +12 Giga 1000,000,000 1.e +9 Mega 1000,000 1.e +6 Kilo 1000 1.e +3 units 1 1.e +0 milli 1 / 1000 1.e -3 micro 1 / 1000,000 1.e -6 nano 1 / 1000,000,000 1.e -9 pico 1 / 1000,000,000,000 1.e -12

A metric prefix or SI prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a decadic multiple or fraction of the unit. Each prefix has a unique symbol that is prepended to the unit symbol. The prefix kilo-, for example, may be added to gram to indicate multiplication by one thousand; one kilogram is equal to one thousand grams. The prefix centi-, likewise, may be added to metre to indicate division by one hundred; one centimetre is equal to one hundredth of a metre. Metric prefix - Wiki

Just Google 0.1% or 1000/1e6 or 1000/1000000 ....answer in the calculator that pops up is same. Read " Parts Per Million - PPM" as used in Resistors. 1000 ppm is 0.1%.

Most MFR Resistors have a Temperature Coefficient of 100 ppm/°C.  Read more at ­ Resistance - Ask The Applications Engineer. 100ppm is like 0.01%.

0.01% is close to the resolution of a 4-1/2 Digit Voltmeter. 100.00 is the reading you will see for 100 Volts. Imagine the front end attenuator in that voltmeter is Standard MFR and a "Hot" Voltage Regulator is leaning on it, (you wanted to make your pcb compact)  The last digit will be Spinning like a Ferris Wheel. Are we understanding Instrumentation!

Read - Accuracy, precision & resolution

Tera Ohm Resistors - That is a Big, Gigantic Value.

Victoreen Tera Ohm Resistors now made by Ohmite.

Pico Farad Capacitors - This is a Small, Tiny, Value

PicoFarad Ceramic Capacitors and a Variable Trimmer Cap

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